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The ESPON 2013 Operational Programme
http://mapfinder.espon.eu/wp-content/uploads/OMF0566-300x371.png 300 371 http://mapfinder.espon.eu/wp-content/uploads/OMF0566-546x676.png 546 676 http://mapfinder.espon.eu/wp-content/uploads/OMF0566-1250x1547.png 1250 1547 http://mapfinder.espon.eu/wp-content/uploads/OMF0566.png 2730 3380 http://mapfinder.espon.eu/wp-content/uploads/OMF0566-546x676.png 546 676 http://mapfinder.espon.eu/wp-content/uploads/OMF0566-1250x1547.png 1250 1547 http://mapfinder.espon.eu/wp-content/uploads/OMF0566.png 2730 3380 Total expenditure in R&D, 2009

Total expenditure on R&D, 2009

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Map
 

  • Ramp;D expenditure target on 3 per cent of GDP cannot be achieved everywhere in Europe
  • Currently only 37 out of 272 regions meet the 3 per cent target. These are mainly located in Germany, Belgium, Sweden and Finland, among others
  • Regions lagging behind are mainly located in Eastern Europe but also in southern parts of Italy, Portugal and Spain. The investment on Ramp;D is very residual and, in some cases, does not reach 0,2 per cent of GDP
  • The capability of the private sector to capitalise on and use Ramp;D results might be more important than the actual amp;D expenditures in a region

Observations for policy

The Europe 2020 strategy sets as target on Ramp;D expenditure 3 per cent of the GDP. This can hardly be achieved everywhere in Europe.

In a large number of regions which today are poorly endowed it will not be possible to reach this target in the years towards 2020. In addition, the capability of the private sector to capitalise on and use Ramp;D results might be more important than the actual Ramp;D expenditures in a region.

Private expenditures on Ramp;D are more significant than public, and the private sector also plays a crucial role notably by stimulating Ramp;D activities and the translation of Ramp;D into new products and services.

Policy context

Europe 2020 sets a growth strategy for the European Union (EU). The focus is on smart, sustainable and inclusive growth. These three mutually reinforcing priorities shall help to deliver high levels of employment, productivity and social cohesion. At EU level, and within each Member State, concrete objectives and targets have been defined for 2020.

This strategy underlines the essential role of Ramp;D boosting job creation and economic growth. As mentioned previously, it sets the headline target of bringing expenditure on Ramp;D to 3 per cent of GDP by 2020. Currently the EU is below other developed countries but ahead of many developing countries. This is a disquieting situation especially if policy makers take into account that some countries such as those that form the BRIC are quickly performing while the EU is not making sufficient progress and indeed scores modestly.

Map interpretation

The map shows the territorial diversity of Ramp;D expenditure represented in relation to the EU target in order to measure internal variations. Overall the heterogeneity is quite significant. It seems that only 37 out of 272 regions meet the 3 per cent target suggested in the Europe 2020 strategy. In general聽 these regions are located in the core of Europe, mainly in Germany, Belgium, Sweden, Finland, and the UK.

If regions above the 2 per cent threshold are taken into consideration three main corridors can be seen on the map: Midi-Pyrenees to Bavaria, Styria to England, and Denmark to Finland. These constitute transnational corridors which cross several internal borders. This is interesting in terms of economies of agglomeration and cooperation as most of the regions with high Ramp;D expenditure are urban, but not necessarily first-ranked metropolitan areas or capital cities. However, circumstances are quite particular for many regions, including Midi-Pyrenees due to the concentration of specialised manufacturing sectors in aerospace.

Many lagging behind regions are located in Eastern Europe but also in Southern parts of Italy, Portugal, and Spain. The investment on Ramp;D is very minor and, in some cases, does not reach 0,2 per cent of the GDP.

Concepts and methods

General expenditure on Ramp;D expresses primarily the resources devoted to Ramp;D in a region and includes both public and private expenditures.


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