- Construction, trade and tourism constitute the most common economic profile for countries such as Ireland, Cyprus, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, but also in Southern Portugal, Southern Italy, and large parts of Spain
- Manufacturing and energy are over-represented in the economic base, mainly in the Czech Republic, Southern Germany, and Northern Italy
Observations for policy
Different regions have different industrial structures and labour force specialisation. This typology at the NUTS2 level provides additional inputs on the regional context. It also confirms the need for analyses at a more narrow scale to explore the potential specificities of economic dynamics, including, but not limited to, territorial specificities such as insular, mountainous or sparsely populated areas.
Regional diversity and specialisation are important cornerstones of today’s regional policy in Europe. This links to the idea of building on territorial potentials and capitals and focusing on smart specialisation. This has recently gained importance in relation to the Europe 2020 strategy, but also for the EU regional policy in the programming period 2014-2020.
The map and its typology provide an outlook on the different main economic profiles found in Europe at the regional level. The typology makes a clear distinction between the different profiles of regional economic contexts.
The map also shows what kinds of sectors are over-represented. This territorial pattern constitutes a form of economic profile or specialisation that determines which sectors play a major role for the local economy and labour market as compared to other regions. In Iceland, for instance, there is an over-representation of Public Services. The same applies to many regions in the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, Belgium and the UK.
Agriculture in combination with either Mining or Manufacturing is over-represented in large parts of Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, and Greece. Construction, Trade and Tourism are over-represented in Ireland, Cyprus, Estonia or Lithuania. In Czech Republic, for instance, Manufacturing and Energy are over-represented. The same is observed in Southern Germany or Northern Italy. Finally, many capital cities demonstrate an over-representation for Business and Financial Services and Administration.
Concepts and methods
The map builds on a clustering analysis based on 2008 data, focusing exclusively on employment by sector and using an ascendant classification method. The data analysed concerns employment in six different categories: (1) Agriculture, Fisheries, and Mining; (2) Manufacturing; (3) Construction; (4) Trade, Transport, Hotels and Restaurants; (5) Business and Market Services; and (6) Administration, Education, Health Care and other Personal Services.